Although the clinical utility of a frozen section analysis (FSA) at the time of radical cystectomy (RC) has already been established, its significance and utility in bladder cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) have not yet been fully evaluated. We identified 458 patients (937 ureters) who underwent open RC for bladder cancer at our 7 Japanese institutions between 2004 and 2015. Among these patients, 139 (284 ureters) received NAC before RC (NAC group), while 319 (653 ureters) underwent RC alone (non-NAC group). FSA was performed on 356 out of 937 (38.0%) ureters and 179 out of 458 (39.1%) patients. FSA was positive in 30 out of 356 (8.4%) ureters and its sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 89.3, 98.5, and 97.8%, respectively. In the NAC group, FSA was performed on 138 out of 284 (48.6%) ureters and 68 out of 139 (48.9%) patients. FSA was positive in 8 out of 138 ureters (5.8%), and its sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 77.8, 99.2, and 97.8%, respectively. In the non-NAC group, FSA was performed on 218 out of 653 (33.4%) ureters and 111 out of 319 (34.8%) patients. FSA was positive in 22 out of 218 (10.1%) ureters, and its sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 94.7, 98.0, and 97.7%, respectively. No correlation was observed between preoperative clinical factors and FSA positivity in the NAC group; however, in the non-NAC group, the incidence of FSA positivity in the ureters of patients with concomitant CIS in TUR-BT specimens was 8/41 (19.5%), which was significantly higher than that in their counterpart (14/177, 7.9%, p = 0.033). Even in the era of NAC in the management of bladder cancer patients, the performance of FSA does not change and FSA at the time of RC may provide useful diagnostic information.
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