Aim: Several lines of evidence indicate that small dense low-density lipoproteins (sd-LDL) are more atherogenic than large buoyant LDL; however, few prospective studies have addressed the role of sd-LDL in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We therefore examined the association between sd-LDL cholesterol (sd-LDL-C) and CVD in a Japanese cohort. Methods: An 11.7-year prospective study was performed using a general population aged 30-79 without a history of cardiovascular disease. Direct LDL-C and sd-LDL-C were measured in samples from 2034 participants (968 men and 1066 women). Results: During the follow-up period, there were 116 incident cases of CVD. The multivariableadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of sd-LDL-C for CVD were calculated using a proportional hazards regression model after adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes, use of lipid-lowering drugs, body mass index, and current smoking and alcohol drinking, and found that increasing quartiles of sd-LDL-C were associated with increased risk of CVD. We also determined that age and sex-adjusted HRs per 10 mg/dL of sd-LDL-C and HRs for CVD, stroke, cerebral infarction, and coronary artery disease were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.12-1.31), 1.17 (95% CI: 1.05-1.30), 1.15 (95% CI: 1.00-1.33), and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.14-1.45), respectively. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that sd-LDL-C was significantly associated with CVD in a Japanese population, providing evidence of sd-LDL-C as an important biomarker to predict CVD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Internal Medicine
- Biochemistry, medical