Thoracoamniotic shunting is the treatment of choice for management of the fetus with type 1 congenital pulmonary airway malformation. Thoracoamniotic shunting has been performed to reduce life-threatening risks such as fetal hydrops. However, caution is needed because of possible complications. Here, we report that thoracoamniotic shunting can cause histologic changes in the cyst epithelia. In 5 of 8 patients treated prenatally with thoracoamniotic shunting, squamous metaplasia in the cyst epithelia was seen; whereas squamous metaplasia was not found in 6 patients who were not treated with this procedure. Our results reveal that long-term exposure to the intrauterine environment could possibly lead to the change in the nature of cyst epithelium and consequent squamous metaplasia.
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