Host-microbe interactions orchestrate skin homeostasis, the dysregulation of which has been implicated in chronic inflammatory conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Here, we show that Staphylococcus cohnii is a skin commensal capable of beneficially inhibiting skin inflammation. We find that Tmem79-/- mice spontaneously develop interleukin-17 (IL-17)-producing T-cell-driven skin inflammation. Comparative skin microbiome analysis reveals that the disease activity index is negatively associated with S. cohnii. Inoculation with S. cohnii strains isolated from either mouse or human skin microbiota significantly prevents and ameliorates dermatitis in Tmem79-/- mice without affecting pathobiont burden. S. cohnii colonization is accompanied by activation of host glucocorticoid-related pathways and induction of anti-inflammatory genes in the skin and is therefore effective at suppressing inflammation in diverse pathobiont-independent dermatitis models, including chemically induced, type 17, and type 2 immune-driven models. As such, S. cohnii strains have great potential as effective live biotherapeutics for skin inflammation.
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