Aim: We aimed to analyze the current treatment status of thoracic/thoracoabdominal aortic diseases in Japan. Methods: Using the Japan Cardiovascular Surgery Database, the number of cases, operative mortality, and major morbidities (stroke, renal failure, pneumonia, paraplegia) of thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed by surgical site (root-ascending, arch, descending, thoracoabdominal aorta), surgical procedure, and age group. Results: The total number of cases was 39,391 (50.1% aortic dissections, 49.9% non-dissections). The number of cases was highest in patients aged in their 70s. In elderly patients, the rates of root replacement (particularly valve-sparing procedures) in the root-ascending aorta and open-chest surgery in the arch and the descending and thoracoabdominal aorta were decreased. The outcome by procedure analysis showed the lowest mortality and morbidity rates for valve-sparing in the root-ascending region, and lower mortality and morbidity (cerebral infarction, renal failure, pneumonia) in non-open-chest procedures (thoracic endovascular aortic repair with/without branch reconstruction) than in open-chest procedures in the arch, descending, and thoracoabdominal regions. With regards to age, operative mortality in patients aged 80 years or older was significantly higher than in those under 80 years of age for all surgical procedures in the root-ascending, arch, and descending regions. Conclusions: Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic surgery in Japan was most commonly performed in elderly patients in their 70s, with a good overall mortality rate of 5.3%. Mortality and postoperative morbidity rates in patients aged 80 years or older were still high. In the future, further improvements in surgical outcomes are needed.
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