To clarify the clinical features and outcome of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection among hematopoietic SCT (HCT) recipients, we retrospectively reviewed the records of 1085 consecutive HCT recipients and identified 42 episodes in 31 HCT recipients with S. maltophilia infection. We compared these recipients with 30 non-HCT patients with S. maltophilia infection. The mortality rate in HCT recipients was significantly higher than that in non-HCT patients (relative risk 5.7, P=0.04), and we identified seven patients with pulmonary hemorrhage due to S. maltophilia, exclusively in the HCT cohort. Six of these latter seven patients died within 1 day from the onset of hemorrhage and the isolate was identified after death in most cases; one patient, who received empiric therapy for S. maltophilia and granulocyte transfusion, survived for more than 2 weeks. The patients with pulmonary hemorrhage had a more severe and longer duration of neutropenia, persistent fever despite of the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, complication by pneumonia and higher C-reactive protein levels than those without pulmonary hemorrhage. In conclusion, S. maltophilia was associated with fulminant and fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in HCT recipients. Empiric therapy with antibiotics before the onset of pulmonary hemorrhage may be effective in HCT recipients who carry the conditions identified.
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