A major cause of death in patients undergoing long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy (LTOT) is lung cancer progression. In our institution, we actively perform stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) on patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing LTOT. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the treatment efficacy and safety of SBRT for patients with T1-3N0M0 non-small-cell lung cancer who had been prescribed LTOT for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 24 patients were studied. Their median age was 74 years (range, 63-87 years). The median duration from the start of LTOT to SBRT was 23 months (range, 0-85 months). Four of the 24 patients underwent lobectomy due to lung cancer. The median follow-up duration was 29 months (range, 5-79 months). One patient had a local recurrence. The median survival time was 30 months. The 3-year overall survival was 49%. In 6 of the 24 patients (25%), COPD presented with interstitial pneumonia. The 3-year overall survival for patients with COPD without interstitial pneumonia was significantly better than that for patients with both COPD and interstitial pneumonia (67% and 0%, respectively; P < 0.0001). Grade 5 radiation pneumonitis occurred in one patient (4%) with COPD with interstitial pneumonia. SBRT was tolerated by patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer undergoing LTOT. SBRT should be considered for patients undergoing LTOT. However, clinicians should consider the risk of severe radiation pneumonitis in patients with interstitial pneumonia.
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