It has long been believed that a damaged central nervous system (CNS) is difficult to regenerate; however, as a result of the rapid progress in biomedical science, including stem cell biology, there has been a renewed and an increasing interest in developing regenerative therapies for the CNS. Driving this interest has been the discovery of neural stem cells in the adult mammalian CNS, including the human CNS, and the finding that neurogenesis occurs in the adult brain. To achieve regeneration of a damaged CNS, our main strategies encompass: (1) axonal regeneration, (2) replenishment of lost neural cells, and (3) functional recovery. In this review, achievements using these approaches will be outlined.
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