Hypovitaminosis D and K due to malnutrition or sunlight deprivation, increased bone resorption due to immobilization, low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of falls may contribute to an increased risk of hip fractures in patients with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the efficacy of interventions intended to prevent hip fractures in elderly patients with Parkinson's disease. PubMed was used to search the literature for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding Parkinson's disease and hip fractures. The inclusion criteria were 50 or more subjects per group and a study period of 1 year or longer. Five RCTs were identified and the relative risk and 95% confidence interval were calculated for individual RCTs. Sunlight exposure increased serum hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, improved motor function, decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Alendronate or risedronate with vitamin D supplementation increased serum 25(OH)D concentration, strongly decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Menatetrenone (vitamin K2) decreased serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin concentration, decreased bone resorption and increased BMD. Sunlight exposure (men and women), menatetrenone (women), alendronate and risedronate with vitamin D supplementation (women) significantly reduced the incidence of hip fractures. The respective RRs (95% confidence intervals) according to the intention-to-treat analysis were 0.27 (0.08, 0.96), 0.13 (0.02, 0.97), 0.29 (0.10, 0.85) and 0.20 (0.06, 0.68). Interventions, including sunlight exposure, menatetrenone and oral bisphosphonates with vitamin D supplementation, have a protective effect against hip fractures elderly patients with Parkinson's disease.
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