Recently, in large-scale hydrogen negative ion sources, the experimental results have shown that ion-ion plasma is formed in the vicinity of the extraction hole under the surface negative ion production case. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the mechanism of the ion-ion plasma formation by our three dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. In the present model, the electron loss along the magnetic filter field is taken into account by the " τ///τâS¥ model." The simulation results show that the ion-ion plasma formation is due to the electron loss along the magnetic filter field. Moreover, the potential profile for the ion-ion plasma case has been looked into carefully in order to discuss the ion-ion plasma formation. Our present results show that the potential drop of the virtual cathode in front of the plasma grid is large when the ion-ion plasma is formed. This tendency has been explained by a relationship between the virtual cathode depth and the net particle flux density at the virtual cathode.
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