Eulerian–Lagrangian (EL–LG) scheme is a numerical scheme that tracks pseudo particles in Eulerian cells. It is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics, however, numerical errors associated with a particle source term has not yet been investigated much. Hence this study focuses on numerical errors of EL–LG caused by particle sources. The purposes are: (i) to clarify causes and situations that bring larger numerical errors by source terms and (ii) to suggest an idea to reduce them. For those purposes, we focus on the particle continuity equation and carry out systematic analysis of the numerical error by setting the following three simple cases: Case (A) No source, Case (B) Constant source, and Case (C) source with arbitrary spatial profile. For each case, we have obtained a theoretical expression of the numerical error. It has been clarified that the errors become relatively large when (i) the spatial profile of the particle source has a large gradient and (ii) the source is localized in the region with high flow-velocity. These were caused by the treatment of the particle source: If pseudo particles due to the source are added in a simple way at the start or the end of the time step, this can lead to larger numerical errors. To reduce those errors, a time-averaging scheme has been suggested. Although the analyzed cases are simple, the results obtained in this study would give important knowledge and insight into numerical errors associated with particle sources in EL–LG schemes.
ASJC Scopus subject areas