Only some carriers of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) develop adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) after a long latency period, and an association has been reported between chronic refractory eczema, known as infective dermatitis, and young-onset ATLL. A 25-year-old female developed ATLL and underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in non-remission. She had chronic refractory eczema and corneal injury at the onset of ATLL. Remission of ATLL was achieved, and the HTLV-1 proviral load decreased after HSCT. In addition, her pre-existing eczema and corneal injuries almost disappeared. More than a year has passed since the transplantation was performed, and she has had no recurrence of either ATLL or lesions in the skin and eye. Her clinical course suggests a possible association between skin and eye lesions and HTLV-1 infection. Changes in the immunological condition after HSCT might play a key role. Special attention is needed when HTLV-1 carriers develop eye or skin lesions.
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