Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors and long-term results after surgery in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct invasion. Methods: The records of 38 HCC patients with microscopic (tumor thrombus was found in more than the second order branch of the biliary tree; n = 19) and macroscopic (tumor thrombus was found in no more than the second order branch of the biliary tree; n = 19) bile duct invasion were reviewed in this study. Survival rates were calculated with regard to 18 clinicopathological factors. A log-rank analysis was performed to identify which factors predict the prognosis. The relationships between the degree of bile duct invasion and 17 clinicopathologic factors were also compared. Results: The overall 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 79%, 45%, and 33%, respectively. The indicators of a favorable prognosis included no intrahepatic metastases, curative surgical resection, and macroscopic bile duct invasion. Conclusion: We found a favorable long-term postoperative result for HCC patients with macroscopic bile duct invasion. Even if HCC tumor thrombus is recognized in the major branches of bile duct, extensive and curative surgical treatment should be recommended when hepatic functional reserve is satisfactory without intrahepatic metastases.
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