Patients whose dyspepsia symptoms had disappeared after 12 months from Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy were decided to be called H. pylori-associated dyspepsia (HpD), and were clearly distinguished from functional dyspepsia. H. pylori eradication is more effective than placebo with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 14 for H. pylori-positive dyspepsia. H. pylori is likely to be associated with the presence of postprandial distress symptoms rather than epigastric pain symptoms, although the evidence whether therapeutic responses to H. pylori eradication differ between subgroups of dyspepsia is still limited. The altered ghrelin secretion from the stomach, the presence or severity of microscopic duodenitis, and altered expression of muscle-specific microRNAs in the gastric smooth muscle layer would be possible mechanisms of HpD.
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