The synthesis and characterization of an artificial boundary lipid, 1,2-dimyristoylamido-1,2-deoxyphosphatidylcholine (DDPC), are described. DDPC has two amide bonds instead of ester bonds of regular lecithins such as 1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC). In differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements, DDPC gave two endothermic peaks: one was at 18.0°C (ΔH = 10.74 kJ·mol-1) and the other at 23.0°C (ΔH = 12.91 kJ·mol-1). The former peak was sharp and considered to be the phase transition of the hydrocarbon region, while the latter was assigned to the melt of the hydrogen-belt formed by the amide groups of DDPC. Addition of DDPC to DMPC made the DMPC membrane less fluid in the region close to the surface, and significantly increased the reconstitution efficiency of glycophorin into the membrane. This effect of DDPC was much larger than that of naturally occurring lipid, sphingomyelin.
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