We report a synthesis of a closely packed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest by a multi-step growth method, including a new approach to immobilize catalytic nanoparticles, using plasma-based chemical vapor deposition. The CNT packing density reaches one-half of the theoretical value, where the space of 30-40% is filled with MWCNTs. This value is approximately one order of magnitude larger than that of asgrown CNT forest synthesized using conventional methods. The method is applicable even at a spatially restricted region, for example, in trench or via hole, and is available at the growth temperature as low as 450°C.
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