Viridiofungins are alkyl citrate natural products characterized by their inhibitory effects on squalene synthase and serine palmitoyl transferase. Their activities as broad-spectrum antifungal agents as well as blocking agents for the biosynthesis of sphingolipids have inspired the development of several approaches toward their stereoselective total synthesis. Structurally, these natural products are a family of hybrid molecules comprising a longer alkyl chain and a citric acid unit, rendering an asymmetric structure that is difficult to access. Herein, we summarize the synthetic approaches to this attractive class of natural products, including proficient synthetic strategies for constructing the densely and chirally functionalized citric acid unit with high polarity. Particular emphasis is placed on methods for furnishing stereogenic centers in the highly constrained carbon framework.
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