The cerebellar cortical circuit of mammals develops via a series of magnificent cellular events in the postnatal stage of development to accomplish the formation of functional circuit architectures. The contribution of genetic factors is thought to be crucial to cerebellar development. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the underlying transcriptome during development to understand the genetic blueprint of the cerebellar cortical circuit. In this review, we introduce the profiling of large numbers of spatiotemporal gene expression data obtained by developmental time-series microarray analyses and in situ hybridization cellular mRNA mapping, and the creation of a neuroinformatics database called the Cerebellar Development Transcriptome Database. Using this database, we have identified thousands of genes that are classified into various functional categories and are expressed coincidently with related cellular developmental stages. We have also suggested the molecular mechanisms of cerebellar development by functional characterization of several identified genes (Cupidin, p130Cas, very-KIND, CAPS2) responsible for distinct cellular events of developing cerebellar granule cells. Taken together, the gene expression profiling during the cerebellar development demonstrates that the development of cerebellar cortical circuit is attributed to the complex but orchestrated transcriptome.
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