Russell–Silver syndrome (RSS) is a congenital anomaly characterized by intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, typical facial features, fifth-finger clinodactyly, and skeletal asymmetry. Although data on intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation have been reported, there are few reports concerning the typical maxillofacial morphology in individuals with RSS. The aim of this study was to describe the details of this systemic condition and to characterize maxillofacial morphology based on cephalograms in 11 Japanese patients (age range, 3.9–12.0 years) with RSS. All 11 individuals had intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation. In addition, most showed mandibular retrognathia and relative macrocephaly. Lateral cephalogram measurements showed that mandibular retrognathia resulted from short mandibular body length, whereas the depth of the cranial base was close to normal. Although asymmetry of hand, foot, and limb length were present in most individuals, obvious facial asymmetry was not common. Differences between left and right skeletal and dental age were not observed, indicating that children with RSS might show asymmetry because of quantitative differences in skeletal growth rather than delayed growth rate. Our findings not only provide important information about the maxillofacial characteristics of RSS, but also help to clarify the association between these characteristics and genetics, which will add to the body of information on clinical symptoms.
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