Over the past two decades, the management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has progressed remarkably, encompassing the development of new diagnostic tools and efficacious biological agents, such as monoclonal antibodies against inflammatory cytokines and surface markers on immune cells. In addition to the significant efficacy of these biological agents, biomarkers for RA are under consideration for their potential to classify heterogeneous patients into several groups based on clinical and immunological phenotypes for the prediction of clinical course and prognosis and the facilitation of appropriate and precise treatment with the appropriate therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Biomarkers, particularly those for the prediction and monitoring of the responses to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for RA, are in demand, with many approaches examined in recent years. In this article, we have summarized the background research on biomarkers and introduced recent topics in the field that enable the possible clinical applications of biomarkers, especially those related to pathogenic cytokines, to guide the treatment of RA.
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