Study Design.A retrospective review of 281 consecutive cases of adult spine deformity (ASD) surgery (age 55 ± 19 yrs, 91% female, follow-up 4.3 ± 1.9 yrs) from a multicenter database.Objective.To compare the value and predictive ability of the 5-item modified frailty index (mFI-5) to the conventional 11-item modified frailty index (mFI-11) for severe adverse events (SAEs).Summary of Background Data.Several recent studies have described associations between frailty and surgical complications. However, the predictive power and usefulness of the mFI-5 have not been proven.Methods.SAEs were defined as: Clavien-Dindo grade >3, reoperation required, deterioration of motor function at discharge, or new motor deficit within 2 years. The patients' frailty was categorized by the mFI-5 and mFI-11 (robust, prefrail, or frail). Spearman's rho was used to assess correlation between the mFI-5 and mFI-11. Univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses were conducted to analyze the relative risk of mFI-5 and mFI-11 as a predictor for SAEs in ASD surgery. Age, sex, and baseline sagittal alignment (Schwab-SRS classification subcategories) were used to adjust the baseline variance of the patients.Results.Of the 281 patients, 63 (22%) had developed SAE at 2 years. The weighted Kappa ratio between the mFI-5 and mFI-11 was 0.87, indicating excellent concordance across ASD surgery. Frailty was associated with increased total complications, perioperative complications, implant-related complications, and SAEs. Adjusted and unadjusted models showed similar c-statistics for mFI-5 and mFI-11 and a strong predictive ability for SAEs in ASD surgery. As the mFI-5 increased from 0 to ≥2, the rate of SAEs increased from 17% to 63% (P < 0.01), and the relative risk was 2.2 (95% CI: 1.3-3.7).Conclusion.The mFI-5 and the mFI-11 were equally effective predictors of SEA development in ASD surgery. The evaluation of patient frailty using mFI-5 may help surgeons optimize procedures and counsel patients.Level of Evidence: 4.
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