(Purpose) To assess a value of decompression operation for a unilateral ureterocele with a complete duplex system as an initial procedure. (Methods) We reviewed records of 33 pediatric patients with a unilateral ureterocele in a complete duplex system who underwent decompression operation between 1987 and 2000. We checked the patient operative age, followup period, position of the ureterocele, type of decompression operation, and additional operation. Furthermore we also checked postoperative vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in patients who underwent transurethral incision (TUI). (Results) Mean operative age and followup period were 6 months old and 82 months. Of the patients, 22 underwent TUI and 11 underwent upper moiety operation (UMO). In the TUI group, 14 (63.6%) had postoperative VUR and 13 (59.0%) underwent additional operations. These rates were higher in the patients with ectopic ureteroceles than with intravesical ureteroceles. Most additional operations were undergone for the patients with postoperative VUR in TUI group by lower complete reconstructions without UMO. All patients with non-functioning upper moiety underwent heminephrectomy at the additional operations. In the other hand, in the UMO group, 3 (27.3%) had additional operation because of persistent VUR which was found preoperatively in lower moiety or contralateral renal unit. (Conclusion) TUI was useful approach as an initial procedure for intravesical ureteroceles because of low additional operation rate. For ectopic ureteroceles with functioning upper moiety, TUI was high additional operation rate, but it was more useful initial operation of two-staged operation than UMO because of avoiding UMO, like heminephrectomy, at additional operation. UMO was low additional operation rate for ectopic ureteroceles without preoperative VUR of renal unit excluding upper moiety. Especially heminephrectomy was a useful approach as an initial procedure if upper moiety was non-functioning.
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