Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the burdens of anticholinergic and sedative drugs in community-living individuals of 85 years of age or older. Methods: The Tokyo Oldest Old survey on Total Health (TOOTH) is a cohort study designed to assess the physical, mental, and oral health of the community-living oldest old. We investigated the relationships between the anticholinergic/sedative burden and physical/cognitive outcomes. The drug burden was assessed by the Drug Burden Index (DBI). Relationships between the DBI score and the physical/cognitive outcomes were evaluated by multivariate regression. The age-related changes (baseline to 3-year follow-up) of these outcomes were also investigated. Results: At baseline, the data of 306 subjects were subjected to a cross-sectional analysis. The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Mini Mental State Examination scores were found to be significantly associated with the DBI score. After 3 years, the Activities of Daily Living score was significantly associated with the DBI score in 176 subjects. Changes in these outcome measures were small during the 3-year follow-up period and were not associated with the DBI scores at baseline. Discussion: DBI in the community-living oldest old were evaluated. Our findings suggest that anticholinergic and sedative drugs may influence the physical and cognitive function in the oldest old. Additional studies should be performed to investigate the relationships between the change of the physical/cognitive functions and the DBI score over a long-term observation period.
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