Anti-glaucoma eye drop treatment often induces dry eyes and can lead to poor medication adherence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops on tear function and the ocular surface epithelium in Sod1−/− mice after treatment with anti-glaucoma eye drops. The mice were divided into four groups: group 1, control group; group 2, anti-glaucoma eye drop; group 3, anti-glaucoma eye drops followed by a secretagogue eye drop (3% diquafosol); and group 4, simultaneous anti-glaucoma and secretagogue eye drop. Mice underwent assessments of tear quantity, tear film breakup time, and vital staining score. Mice in groups 3 and 4 showed significantly better tear stability and lower corneal staining scores than mice in group 2 after eye drop instillations (p < 0.05). Mice in group 4 showed significantly better tear stability, lower corneal staining scores, and higher goblet cell densities than those in group 1 after eye drop instillations (p < 0.05). The conjunctival epithelium showed stratification and abundance of Muc5AC-positive goblet cells in group 4, whereas thinning with desquamation was observed with a few goblet cells in group 2. Thus, simultaneous administration of 3% diquafosol sodium eye drops with topical anti-glaucoma drops showed favorable effects on tear stability and the corneal epithelium against the ocular surface toxicity inflicted by the anti-glaucoma eye drops.
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