This paper will examine Japan's first comprehensive space policy, Basic Space Plan (BSP) released on 2 June. BSP was formulated by the Strategic Headquarters for Space Development consisting of all Ministers in accordance with Art.24 of the Basic Space Law (BSL), Japan's first national space law promulgated in May 2008. BSP, which will determine the directions of Japan's space development and use for the next 5 years unless a big change occurs, is made up of 7 Action Plans with 6 Basic Targets. BSP demonstrates several things: first, Japan's defense space program is considerably modest, and there is no possibility that Japan would be a space military power; second, the shift from the development to utilization of space is clear, reflecting the provisions in the BSL. Focus is now placed on the space commercialization. As a result, the Governmental measures to commercialize space activities are enumerated in detail; third, the concept "space diplomacy" is newly introduced for Japan's space activities, where Asia is given a special status for the strategic cooperation. Finally, a unique plan is proposed for the lunar exploration. Robots will have landed and done research on the Moon by 2020 before possible manned exploration begins. While the detail of the lunar exploration remains to be decided, such robots may include human-figured 2-leg robots as a substitute of human astronauts.