Background and Objectives: Bariatric surgery improves metabolic diseases and alters the intestinal microbiota in animals and humans, but different procedures reportedly have different impacts on the intestinal microbiota. We developed laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with duodenojejunal bypass (LSG-DJB) as an alternative to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in addition to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) for Japanese patients with obesity. We investigated the precise change in the intestinal microbiota induced by these procedures in the present study. Methods: A prospective observational study of 44 Japanese patients with obesity was conducted [22 patients underwent LSG, 18 underwent LSG-DJB, and 4 underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)]. The patients’ clinical parameters and intestinal microbiota were investigated before and for 6 months after surgery. The microbiota was analyzed by a 16S rDNA method. Results: LSG and LSG-DJB significantly improved the metabolic disorders in the patients with obesity. The proportion of the phylum Bacteroidetes and order Lactobacillales increased significantly in the LSG group, and that of the order Enterobacteriales increased significantly in the LSG-DJB group. Conclusions: LSG and LSG-DJB improved obesity and type 2 diabetes in Japanese patients with obesity, but the impact of LSG-DJB on the intestinal microbiota differed from that of LSG. This difference in the impact on the intestinal environment could explain the different efficacies of LSG and LSG-DJB in terms of their ability to resolve metabolic disorders in the clinical setting.
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