Purpose: To investigate the effect of grade 3 nasal conjunctivochalasis (NCCh) on the tear film inflammation, ocular surface findings, and tear function findings. Design: Prospective, observational case series. Methods: Eleven eyes with Yokoi grade 3 NCCh in which the chalatic conjunctiva occluded the punctum and 18 eyes without NCCh but with central or temporal conjunctivochalasis, or both, and 16 eyes of healthy controls were recruited prospectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for inflammatory tear cytokines, tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test measurements, and fluorescein and rose bengal vital stainings and impression cytologic and brush cytologic analysis for real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis of MUC5AC messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were performed. Results: Eyes with grade 3 NCCh had significantly delayed tear clearance. All inflammatory cytokines showed higher values in eyes with grade 3 NCCh compared with the eyes without nasal chalasis with a comparably significant elevation in interleukin-1b and tumor necrosis factor α levels. The mean rose bengal score in eyes with grade 3 NCCh was significantly higher compared with eyes without nasal chalasis and eyes of controls. The mean goblet cell density was significantly lower in eyes with grade 3 NCCh with downregulation of the relative MUC5AC mRNA expression. Conclusions: Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of conjunctivochalasis and is more pronounced in eyes with nasal chalasis. Pooling of inflammatory cytokines in tears of patients with NCCh associated with delayed tear clearance induces distinct adverse effects that affect the ocular surface health.
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