The adaptive immune response is a powerful tool, capable of recognizing, binding to, and neutralizing a vast number of internal and external threats via T or B lymphatic receptors with widespread sets of antigen specificities. The emergence of high-throughput sequencing technology and bioinformatics provides opportunities for research in the fields of life sciences and medicine. The analysis and annotation for immune repertoire data can reveal biologically meaningful information, including immune prediction, target antigens, and effective evaluation. Continuous improvements of the immunological repertoire sequencing methods and analysis tools will help to minimize the experimental and calculation errors and realize the immunological information to meet the clinical requirements. That said, the clinical application of adaptive immune repertoire sequencing requires appropriate experimental methods and standard analytical tools. At the population cell level, we can acquire the overview of cell groups, but the information about a single cell is not obtained accurately. The information that is ignored may be crucial for understanding the heterogeneity of each cell, gene expression and drug response. The combination of high-throughput sequencing and single-cell technology allows us to obtain single-cell information with low-cost and high-throughput. In this review, we summarized the current methods and progress in this area.
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