To investigate the psychological characteristics of smoking and tobacco dependence, a questionnaire survey was conducted of 2,051 consenting adults aged 21 to 65 years from the total population of a town in Akita Prefecture. Valid responses were received from 673 men and 818 women, for a total of 1,491 (72.7%). The questionnaires used were a tobacco dependence questionnaire, a personality questionnaire (the NEO Five-Factor Inventory: NEO-FFI), the WHO Subjective Well-being Inventory (SUBI), and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Subjects who responded that they had smoked daily for more than one month before the day of the survey were considered smokers. There were 400 male (59.8%) and 39 female (4.8%) smokers. Both male and female smokers were more extroverted than nonsmokers. Among smokers, there were 166 (41.5%) men and 19 (49%) women diagnosed as having a tobacco dependence of ICD-10. Among men, dependent smokers had a significantly higher score for Openness of the NEO-FFI and a lower score for Perceived III Health on the SUBI than nondependent smokers. Among smokers, 128 (32.0%) men and 13 (33%) women met the ICD10 criteria for tobacco withdrawal. Among male smokers, those with tobacco withdrawal had a significantly higher score for Neuroticism and Openness on the NEO-FFI and a lower score for Negative Affect on the SUBI than those with no withdrawal. These results suggest that there is a relationship between tobacco dependence and personality or negative emotions. tobacco dependence, tobacco withdrawal, personality, five-factor model, subjective well-being.
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