Background Parker et al. (2006) proposed a new approach to classify specific sub-types of non-melancholic depression caused by various stress factors and premorbid personality styles: The Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (T&P). The current study aim was to develop the Japanese version of the T&P and evaluate its reliability and validity. Methods We studied 114 patients with non-melancholic depression. Reliability was assessed using the test-retest method. Convergent validity of the T&P was compared with the clinician ratings of each patient for the eight personality traits. We also assessed the impact of depressive state on the T&P. Results The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients among eight constructs of the T&P ranged from 0.77 to 0.89, indicating good-to-excellent reliability. Anxious Worrying (rho=0.29), Perfectionism (rho=0.17), Personal Reserve (rho=0.18), Irritability (rho=0.38), and Social Avoidance (rho=0.32) showed adequate levels of convergent validity; Rejection Sensitivity (rho=0.16), Self-criticism (rho=-0.02), and Self-focus (rho=0.07) showed relatively weak convergent validity. Perfectionism (rho=-0.06), Social Avoidance (rho=0.17), Anxious Worrying (rho=0.40), Personal Reserve (rho=0.30), Irritability (rho=0.28), Rejection Sensitivity (rho=0.35), Self-criticism (rho=0.49), and Self-focus (rho=0.24) showed minimal sensitivity to mood state effects. Limitations Only one site was used. While a Likert scale was used, the clinician-rated personality trait measure had not been validated. Conclusions The J-T&P is a reliable and valid measure for assessing temperament and personality in Japanese patients with non-melancholic depression.
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