Background: An understanding of normal glenohumeral geometry is important for anatomical reconstruction in shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, the details of the glenohumeral joint in Asian populations have not been sufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional geometry of the glenohumeral joint in the normal Japanese population and to clarify its morphologic features. Methods: Anthropometric analysis of the glenohumeral joint was performed using computed tomography scans of 160 normal shoulders from healthy Japanese volunteers. The glenohumeral dimensions and orientation were analyzed 3-dimensionally. Sex differences and correlations between sides and among the respective parameters in the glenohumeral dimensions were evaluated. Results: The normal Japanese humeral head has an average width of 41.4 mm, thickness of 13.2 mm, diameter of 42.9 mm, retroversion of 32°, and inclination of 135°. The glenoid has an average height of 31.5 mm, width of 23.1 mm, diameter of 62.0 mm, retroversion of 0°, and inferior inclination of 2°. The values of the glenohumeral dimensions were uniform in men and women, and the humeral head and glenoid were larger in men than in women. The glenohumeral size was well correlated between the 2 sides, and there were direct correlations among the heights, humeral length, humeral head size, and glenoid size. Conclusions: The present study revealed the glenohumeral geometry in the normal Japanese population. The present results would be useful to determine the size of implants and to improve the design of shoulder prostheses that reflect the normal anatomy of the Asian glenohumeral joint.
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