Currently, no three-dimensional reference data exist for the normal coccyx in the standing position on computed tomography (CT); however, this information could have utility for evaluating patients with coccydynia and pelvic floor dysfunction. Thus, we aimed to compare coccygeal parameters in the standing versus supine positions using upright and supine CT and evaluate the effects of sex, age, and body mass index (BMI) on coccygeal movement. Thirty-two healthy volunteers underwent both upright (standing position) and conventional (supine position) CT examinations. In the standing position, the coccyx became significantly longer and straighter, with the tip of the coccyx moving backward and downward (all p < 0.001). Additionally, the coccygeal straight length (standing/supine, 37.8 ± 7.1/35.7 ± 7.0 mm) and sacrococcygeal straight length (standing/supine, 131.7 ± 11.2/125.0 ± 10.7 mm) were significantly longer in the standing position. The sacrococcygeal angle (standing/supine, 115.0 ± 10.6/105.0 ± 12.5°) was significantly larger, while the lumbosacral angle (standing/supine, 21.1 ± 5.9/25.0 ± 4.9°) was significantly smaller. The migration length of the tip of the coccyx (mean, 7.9 mm) exhibited a moderate correlation with BMI (r = 0.42, p = 0.0163). Our results may provide important clues regarding the pathogenesis of coccydynia and pelvic floor dysfunction.
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