Background: Although bone defects of the humeral head and glenoid could affect glenohumeral instability, bone loss has not been sufficiently evaluated. The purpose of this study was to quantify bone defects 3-dimensionally in cases with glenohumeral instability. Methods: Three-dimensional surface models of bilateral proximal humeri and glenoids were reconstructed from computed tomography scans of 90 patients with symptomatic, unilateral, recurrent glenohumeral instability. The left-side models were mirrored, and intact bone areas were matched to those of the right-side models. The volume, length, width, and depth of identified bone defects were assessed. After the values were corrected by patient height, the characteristics of the bone defects were evaluated. Results: Bone defects were present in 97.8% of the humeral heads and 96.7% of the glenoids, and women had significantly smaller bone defects than men did. The volume of humeral head defects had a mild correlation with that of glenoid defects. The number of traumatic episodes was not correlated with humeral head bone defects, but it was positively correlated with glenoid bone defects. Patients with recurrent dislocations had significantly deeper and larger Hill-Sachs lesions than the other cases. Conclusion: Bone defects of the humeral head and the glenoid in cases with symptomatic traumatic glenohumeral instability were quantified 3-dimensionally using a computed tomography surface-matching technique. Almost all cases showed bone defects in the humeral head and glenoid compared with the intact shoulder, and such bone defects may be more common than previously reported. This study suggested that bipolar bone lesions are not always created by the same mechanism.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine