As a mammalian toll-like receptor family member protein, TLR2 recognizes lipoproteins from bacteria and modulates the immune response by inducing the expression of various cytokines. We have developed fluorescence-labeled TLR2 ligands with either hydrophilic or hydrophobic fluorescence groups. The labeled ligands maintained the inflammatory IL-6 induction activity and enabled us to observe the internalization and colocalization of the TLR2 ligands using live-cell imaging. The time-lapse monitoring in the live-cell imaging of the fluorescence-labeled TLR2 ligand showed that TLR2/CD14 expression in the host cells enhanced the internalization of TLR2 ligand molecules.
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