Background: In recent years, individuals with high serum total cholesterol (TC) have been more likely to modify their diet by reducing their intake of dietary lipids. The aim of this study was to investigate time-related changes in the relationships between the Keys score, dietary lipids, and TC between 1980 and 2010 in representative Japanese populations. Methods and Results: We used 3 cross-sectional cohort studies conducted among Japanese representative populations in 1980, 1990, and 2010 (NIPPON DATA80/90/2010) for the analyses. We analyzed data for 10,365, 7,714, and 2,657 participants, respectively, in each dataset. The relationships between TC and the Keys score (calculated by dietary lipids, cholesterol, and energy intake)/ dietary lipids were examined. In men, a 1-unit higher Keys score correlated with 0.92 mg/dL and 0.64 mg/dL TC in 1980 and 1990, respectively, but not in 2010. In women, a 1-unit higher Keys score correlated with 0.70 mg/dL and 0.74 mg/dL TC in 1980 and 1990, respectively, but with 0.33 mg/dL in 2010. In men and women, dietary cholesterol, saturated fatty acid (SFA), and trans fatty acid (TFA) levels were positively associated with TC concentrations in 1980 and 1990, but not in 2010. Conclusions: In these representative Japanese populations, a higher Keys score as well as dietary cholesterol, SFA, and TFA levels correlated with higher TC concentrations in 1980/1990, but the relationships were weaker or not observed in 2010.
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