The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mid- to long-term clinical outcomes of total finger joint arthroplasty using a costal osteochondral autograft for joint ankylosis. Twenty-three joints (three metacarpophalangeal joints, 20 proximal interphalangeal joints) in 23 patients (19 men and four women) were treated with a costal osteochondral autograft and were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 77 months (60–138). Mean age was 33 years (18 to 55). Significant improvement in active finger extension/flexion was seen from a preoperative mean of −24°/26° (arc: 2°) to −13°/75° (arc: 63°) at latest follow-up. Mean preoperative Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand version of the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was initially 24 and improved significantly to 5 at latest follow-up. Conclusion: total finger arthroplasty using a costal osteochondral autograft gave an anatomical and biological reconstruction and provided stable improvement at a mean follow-up of 77 months. Level of evidence: IV.
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