The concentrations of insulin selectively regulate multiple cellular functions. To understand how insulin concentrations are interpreted by cells, we constructed a trans-omic network of insulin action in FAO hepatoma cells using transcriptomic data, western blotting analysis of signaling proteins, and metabolomic data. By integrating sensitivity into the trans-omic network, we identified the selective trans-omic networks stimulated by high and low doses of insulin, denoted as induced and basal insulin signals, respectively. The induced insulin signal was selectively transmitted through the pathway involving Erk to an increase in the expression of immediate-early and upregulated genes, whereas the basal insulin signal was selectively transmitted through a pathway involving Akt and an increase of Foxo phosphorylation and a reduction of downregulated gene expression. We validated the selective trans-omic network in vivo by analysis of the insulin-clamped rat liver. This integrated analysis enabled molecular insight into how liver cells interpret physiological insulin signals to regulate cellular functions.
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