Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the capacity for site-specific differentiation of cell types in response to cues provided by different organs. This phenomenon suggests that MSCs participate in cutaneous wound regeneration. However, there are no prior reports on the influence of the local application of MSCs on cutaneous wound regeneration. To examine the effects of MSCs on wound regeneration, we cultured bone marrow cells of the femur of rats and treated the plastic adherent cells with a differentiation medium to induce differentiation. After treatment, we found that the bone marrow-derived plastic adherent cells possessed myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis capabilities, indicating that these cells are MSCs. The bone marrow-derived plastic adherent cells were injected intradermally into the skin of rats, and linear full-thickness incisional wounds were made immediately through the injected area. At 14 days after operation, wounds transplanted with bone marrow-derived plastic adherent cells had healed with very fine scars. Collagen architecture was thick and appeared to be similar to normal dermis. Histomorphologic scale analysis demonstrated significant differences between the control and the wounds transplanted with bone marrow-derived plastic adherent cells. These results indicate that transplanted MSCs can respond quite normally to wound healing and regenerate dermal structure.
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