Background: Treatment patterns and outcomes of individuals with vascular disease who have new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) are not well characterized. Methods: Among patients with new-onset AF, we analyzed treatment and outcomes in those with or without vascular disease in the ORBIT-AF II registry. Vascular disease was defined as coronary disease with or without myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization, or peripheral artery disease. The primary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular or neurological events (MACNE) and major bleeding. Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust the difference in patient characteristics. Results: Overall 1920 of 6203 (31.0%) of new-onset AF had vascular disease. In patients with vascular disease, 62.2% of those were treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and 23.4% with warfarin. Dual therapy and triple therapy were used in 36.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Vascular disease patients had increased risk of MACNE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.83 [95%CIs 1.32–2.55]), but not major bleeding (aHR 1.24 [0.95–1.63]). Among patients with vascular disease, relative to those on warfarin, those treated with DOACs had similar risk for MACNE (aHR 1.20 [0.77–1.87]) but lower risks for bleeding, although it did not reach statistical significance (aHR 0.70 [0.43–1.15]). Concomitant antiplatelet therapy was associated with higher bleeding (aHR 2.27 [1.38–3.73]) with no apparent reduction in MACNE (aHR 1.50 [1.00–2.25]). Conclusions: Most patients with AF and vascular disease were managed with oral anticoagulation. About half of them were also treated with concomitant antiplatelet therapy, which was associated with increased risk of bleeding, without evidence of improved cardiovascular outcomes.
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