With advanced understanding of molecular background and correlation with therapeutic outcomes, the revised 4th edition of World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors incorporated molecular information into the definition of diffuse gliomas. Indeed, oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma are now defined by molecular signature, with diagnosis of glioblastoma being made by histology. In parallel, numerous clinical trials are underway all over the world, and important findings are being produced every year that have an impact on patient outcomes. Moreover, novel therapies/technologies are also being actively developed; however, there are still many CNS tumors for which no effective therapy has been established except radiotherapy. In this article, the authors review the recent results of major clinical trials and present their treatment recommendations for patients with adult, supratentorial diffuse gliomas of grades II and III stratified according to the new WHO classification.
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