A 34-year-old man with refractory acute myelogenous leukemia underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from his HLA-matched sibling. Engraftment was prompt and no acute GVHD developed. However, high fever persisted even after engraftment, and the patient developed headache, diplopia, vertigo and nuchal rigidity on day 20 posttransplant. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed pleocytosis with no detectable microorganisms. Despite therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, antifungal agents and antituberculous drugs, he developed rapid mental deterioration with seizures and died on day 40. Just prior to his death, trichomonads were isolated from both CSF and urine. Scanning electron microscopic examination identified the trichomonad as Trichomonas foetus. At autopsy, trichomonads were detected histopathologically in an area involving meningoencephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of T. foetus meningoencephalitis in a recipient of allogeneic PBSCT and, more importantly, the first human case of T. foetus infection.
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