Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of turbulent channel flow over a two-dimensional irregular rough wall with uniform blowing (UB) was performed. The main objective is to investigate the drag reduction effectiveness of UB on a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer toward its practical application. The DNS was performed under a constant flow rate at the bulk Reynolds number values of 5600 and 14000, which correspond to the friction Reynolds numbers of about 180 and 400 in the smooth-wall case, respectively. Based upon the decomposition of drag into the friction and pressure contributions, the present flow is considered to belong to the transitionally-rough regime. Unlike recent experimental results, it turns out that the drag reduction effect of UB on the present two-dimensional rough wall is similar to that for a smooth wall. The friction drag is reduced similarly to the smooth-wall case by the displacement of the mean velocity profile. Besides, the pressure drag, which does not exist in the smooth-wall case, is also reduced; namely, UB makes the rough wall aerodynamically smoother. Examination of turbulence statistics suggests that the effects of roughness and UB are relatively independent to each other in the outer layer, which suggests that Stevenson’s formula can be modified so as to account for the roughness effect by simply adding the roughness function term.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry