Microfluidic chips with micro- or nanoscale channels are currently in great demand. PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), a viscoelastic polymer, has high transparency and good chemical stability, making it a suitable substrate material for such chips. However, it is difficult to machine PDMS by conventional cutting processes because of its high elasticity and adhesion. We proposed the cryogenic micromachining of PDMS completely immersed in liquid nitrogen as a direct process to fabricate customized 3D nano/microfluidic chips precisely. In this study, the feasibility of ultra-precision cryogenic machining is studied as an extended nanofabrication process.
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