A genome mining survey combined with metabolome analysis of publicly available strains identified Couchioplanes sp. RD010705, a strain belonging to an underexplored genus of rare actinomycetes, as a producer of new metabolites. HPLC-DADguided fractionation of its fermentation extracts resulted in the isolation of five new methyl-branched unsaturated fatty acids, (2E,4E)-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-octadienoic acid (1), (2E,4E)-2,4,7-trimethyl-2,4-octadienoic acid (2), (R)-(-)-phialomustin B (3), (2E,4E)-7-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-2,4-octadienoic acid (4), (2E,4E)-7-hydroxy-2,4,7-trimethyl-2,4-octadienoic acid (5), and one prenylated tryptophan derivative, 6-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-N-acetyl-L-tryptophan (6). The enantiomer ratio of 4 was determined to be approximately S/R = 56:44 by a recursive application of Trost's chiral anisotropy analysis and chiral HPLC analysis of its methyl ester. Compounds 1-5 were weakly inhibitory against Kocuria rhizophila at MIC 100 μg/mL and none were cytotoxic against P388 at the same concentration.
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