Long-term oncological outcomes for primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with carbon-ion radiotherapy (CIRT) are poorly understood. Patients with primary RCC were treated with 12 or 16-fraction CIRT at The Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences outside of clinical trials. Outcome data were pooled and retrospectively analyzed for toxicity, local control, and disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival. From 1997 to 2014, 19 RCC patients (11 with T1aN0M0, 4 with T1bN0M0, and 4 with inoperable advanced stage [T4N0M0, T3aN1M0, and T1aN0M1]) were treated with CIRT and followed up for a median of 6.6 (range, 0.7-16.5) years; 9 of these patients were inoperable because of comorbidities or advanced-stage disease. Diagnoses were confirmed by imaging in 11 patients and by biopsy in the remaining 8. In 4 of 5 patients with definitive renal comorbidities, including diabetic nephropathy, sclerotic kidney or solitary kidney pre-CIRT progressed to grade 4 chronic kidney disease (CKD). In contrast, the remaining 14 patients without definitive renal comorbidities did not progress to grade 3 or higher CKD. Furthermore, although 1 case of grade 4 dermatitis was observed, there were no other grade 3 or higher non-renal adverse events. Local control rate, and disease-free, cancer-specific, and overall survival rates at 5 years of all 19 patients were 94.1%, 68.9%, 100%, and 89.2%, respectively. This updated retrospective analysis based on long-term follow-up data suggests that CIRT is a safe treatment for primary RCC patients without definitive renal comorbidities pre-CIRT, and yield favorable treatment outcomes, even in inoperable cases.
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