Background: The collagen gel droplet embedded drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) is a new anticancer drug sensitivity test that only requires a small number of cells. We report the use of this test in the choice of adjuvant chemotherapy for treatment of a rare case of ovarian cancer involving malignant transformation of ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Case Report: The patient was a 70-year-old female with an ovarian tumor, pleural effusion, carcinomatous ascites and a chest wall tumor. The histopathological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma, mature cystic teratoma with malignant transformation, stage IV. Paclitaxel/carboplatin therapy was selected as adjuvant chemotherapy based on CD-DST results. Upon completion of 6 courses, no increases in carcinomatous ascites or recurrent lesions were evident, and the chest wall tumor had disappeared completely. Conclusion: The CD-DST may be particularly useful for selecting preoperative chemotherapeutic drugs for patients with ovarian cancer in which the histological type of the primary tumor is unknown.
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