Background: The objective of this study was to validate the board certification system of the Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery (JSHBPS) using the data of hepatectomy cases from the National Clinical Database (NCD) of Japan. Methods: Minimal required annual numbers of high-level hepato-biliary-pancreatic (HBP) surgeries were 50 for a board-certified A training institution and 30 for a board-certified B training institution. Records of 14,970 patients who had undergone hepatectomy of more than one segment (MOS), excluding lateral segmentectomy, during 2011 and 2012 were analyzed according to the category of board-certified institution and with or without participation of board-certified instructors or expert surgeons. Results: Thirty-day mortality and operative mortality of 14,970 patients after MOS hepatectomy were 1.9% and 3.8%, respectively. Operative mortality rates after MOS hepatectomies performed at certified A institutions, certified B institutions, and non-certified institutions were 3.1%, 3.8%, and 4.5%, respectively (P < 0.001). The operative mortality rates after MOS hepatectomies performed with participation of certified instructors or expert surgeons were better than those without (3.5% vs. 4.3%, P = 0.012). A multiple logistic regression model showed that the cutoffs of high-level HBP surgeries performed per year at hospitals that predicted operative mortality after MOS hepatectomies were 10 and 50. Conclusions: Competences and requirements for board-certified institutions, instructors, and expert surgeons to perform hepatectomy were found to be appropriate.
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