Summary What is known and Objective: Miconazole is a strong inhibitor of CYP2C9, one of the main enzymes involved in the metabolism of warfarin. Concurrent use of the two drugs leads to potentially serious adverse effects. Although it is often assumed that use of the oral miconazole gel is acceptable with concomitant warfarin, because of the low bioavailability following buccal administration, drug-drug interactions have been reported following such use. We aimed to investigate case reports of such interactions and develop a pharmacokinetic model to model such interactions. Methods: The Medline database from 1966 to October 2010 was used for literature search. Case reports of the potentiation of the anticoagulant effects of warfarin, such as the elevation of prothrombin time (INR), by concomitant administration of warfarin and miconazole oral gel were collected. We quantitatively estimated the extent of inhibition of warfarin metabolism by orally administered miconazole gel and compared our findings with case reports. Results and Discussion: Metabolism of (S)-warfarin is inhibited potently following administration of a standard dose (200-400 mg/day in Japan) of miconazole gel. This may lead to in an increase in the blood concentration of warfarin and lead to serious adverse effects. The literature reports of clinical interactions with concomitant use of those drugs show that other factors may amplify the effects of any increase in blood concentration. What is new and Conclusion: We summarize all reported, clinically significant, cases of drug interaction between miconazole oral gel and warfarin. Pharmacokinetic modelling shows that concomitant administration of warfarin and miconazole oral gel can lead to substantial increase in warfarin concentration. However, our PK/PD model fails to capture the dramatic increases seen in INR values, and hence bleeding complications, reported in the literature. Taken together, the evidence suggests that concomitant use of miconazole gel and warfarin should be avoided. Even over-the-counter products containing miconazole should be used with caution by patients receiving warfarin.
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