The waveguide structure of graded-index plastic optical fibers (GI POFs), such as index profile, numerical aperture (NA), and core diameter, is appropriately designed for eliminating bending losses, even under a severe bending condition. The bending loss of GI POFs under a severe bending condition is drastically reduced when the core diameter is smaller than 200 μm and when the NA is higher than 0.25. The bending loss of GI POFs even under a severe bending condition vanishes with a core diameter of 200 μm and an NA of 0.24. It is experimentally confirmed for the first time that the mode coupling due to the bending induces the bending loss. The mode coupling strength before the fiber is bent affects the bending loss seriously. Moreover, the mode-coupling strength is evaluated by the propagation constant difference Δβ between the adjacent modes. The Δβ value, which is a function of the core diameter and NA, affects the bending loss. Therefore, based on the calculation of the Δβ we propose a guideline for the appropriate design of waveguide parameters for GI POF, in order to suppress the bending loss.
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