This paper proposes a method that can estimate and classify the magnitude of wheel slippage for a mobile robot in sandy terrains. The proposed method exploits a sensor suite, called an in-wheel sensor, which measures the normal force and contact angle at the wheel-sand interaction boundary. An experimental test using the in-wheel sensor reveals that the maximum normal force and exit angle of the wheel explicitly vary with the magnitude of the wheel slippage. These characteristics are then fed into a machine learning algorithm, which classifies the wheel slippage into three categories: non-stuck wheel, quasi-stuck wheel, and stuck wheel. The usefulness of the proposed method for slip classification is experimentally evaluated using a four-wheel-drive test bed rover.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Computer Science(all)
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering